[Cirrhosis] Perut Busung dan Kulit Kekuningan

Jaundice is a condition in which the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes turn yellow. This yellow color is caused by a high level of bilirubin, a yellow-orange bile pigment. Bile is fluid secreted by the liver. Bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of red blood cells.

Patient 101.1

Jaundice can be caused by a problem in any of the three phases in bilirubin production.

Before the production of bilirubin, you may have what’s called unconjugated jaundice due to increased levels of bilirubin caused by:

  • Reabsorption of a large hematoma (a collection of clotted or partially clotted blood under the skin).
  • Hemolytic anemias (blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal lifespan is over).
Patient 101.1

During production of bilirubin, jaundice can be caused by:

  • Viruses, including Hepatitis A, chronic Hepatitis B and C, and Epstein-Barr virus infection (infectious mononucleosis).
  • Alcohol.
  • Autoimmune disorders.
  • Rare genetic metabolic defects.
  • Medicines, including acetaminophen toxicity, penicillins, oral contraceptives, chlorpromazine (Thorazine®) and estrogenic or anabolic steroids.

After bilirubin is produced, jaundice may be caused by obstruction (blockage) of the bile ducts from:

  • Gallstones.
  • Inflammation (swelling) of the gallbladder.
  • Gallbladder cancer.
  • Pancreatic tumor.

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